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martes, 11 de diciembre de 2018

English Grammar - Passive Causative

English Grammar - Causative

The Passive: When, why, and how to use it

Writing - Passive verbs with 'that' clauses - "It is thought that..."

LA PASIVA: EXPLICACIÓN Y EJERCICIOS


La voz pasiva

Formación:
La forma pasiva del verbo se construye con verbo "to be" y el participio del verbo principal.
Para transformar un verbo de activa a pasiva conjugamos “to be” en el tiempo que se encuentre el verbo principal activo y le añadiremos el participio de dicho verbo.
Activa: My friends sent many cards. (el verbo activo está en pasado simple)
Pasiva: Many cards were sent by my friends (verbo pasivo: “to be” en pasado simple: were + participio del verbo principal: sent)
Por consiguiente, el infinitivo activo de un verbo es, por ejemplo: To sell, to buy, y el infinitivo pasivo de estos es "to be sold" o "to be bought".
El objetivo de la voz pasiva es el de dar más importancia al objeto de la acción que al sujeto. Si queremos dar importancia al ejecutor de la acción, al sujeto, utilizamos la voz activa.
Esquema:
Voz activa: SUJETO + VERBO ACTIVO + OBJETO + CIRCUNSTANCIA
Ejemplo: Somebody discovered America in 1492
En la voz pasiva el objeto pasa a ser sujeto de la pasiva:
Voz pasiva: SUJETO (OBJETO DE LA ACTIVA) + VERBO PASIVO + CIRCUNSTANCIA
Ejemplo: America was discovered in 1492.
En la voz pasiva no nos interesa tanto el sujeto de la acción. Cuando queremos mencionarlo en la pasiva usamos el agente con la preposiciónBY.
Activa: Robert wrote many books last year
Pasiva: Many books were written last year by Robert
 


 Omisión del agente

El sujeto de la voz activa pasa a ser complemento agente introducido por  by”. En muchos casos se omite el agente: principalmente cuando no interesa pues no aporta información (“by somebody”, “by them” no se utilizan pues no identifican a los agentes de la acción).

They throw away the rubbish every morning.
The rubbish is thrown away every morning.

They haven’t stamped the letter.
The letter hasn’t been stamped.


Muchas veces el agente no se pone porque es evidente por el contexto de la oración.
    
The police have caught the thieves.
The thieves have been caught
PASSIVE VOICE TENSES CHART

TENSES
ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
SIMPLE PRESENT
She plays the piano
The piano is played
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
She is playing the piano
The piano is being played
SIMPLE PAST
She played the piano
The piano was played
PAST CONTINUOUS
She was playing the piano
The piano was being played
PRESENT PERFECT
She has played the piano
The piano has been played
PAST PERFECT
She had played the piano
The piano had been played
SIMPLE FUTURE
She will play the piano
The piano will be played
PERFECT FUTURE
She will have played the piano
The piano will have been played
FUTURE OF INTENTION
She is going to play the piano
The piano is going to be played
SIMPLE CONDITIONAL
She would play the piano
The piano would be played
PERFECT CONDITIONAL
She would have played the piano
The piano would have been played
MODAL AUXILIARIES
She can play the piano
The piano can be played
SEMI-MODALS
She doesn't have to play the piano
The piano doesn't have to be played
PRESENT INFINITIVE
(to) play
(to) be played
PERFECT INFINITIVE
(to) have played
(to) have been played
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
playing
being played
PERFECT PARTICIPLE
having played
having been played

NOTE: The following tenses do not have a passive form: Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous and Future Perfect Continuous.

Ejemplos
They didn’t pay me for the work, they expected me to do it for nothing.
I wasn’t paid for the work, I was expected to do it for nothing.

He escaped when they were moving him from one prison to another.
He escaped when he was being moved from one prison to another.

She didn’t introduce me to her mother.
I wasn’t introduced to her mother.

Oraciones interrogativas:
Ejemplo:
Who discovered America?
Who was American discovered by?

 Ejemplos con modales

Activa: Banks should pay more taxes
Pasiva: More taxes should be paid by banks.

Activa: The manager must sign the cheque
Pasiva: The cheque must be signed by the manager.


Ejemplos con modales perfectos
Activa: Somebody must have helped her.
Pasiva: She must have been helped

Voz pasiva con dos objetos:
A veces en la voz activa hay dos objetos, uno directo y otro indirecto.
 Ejemplo: They gave us a present.

"Us" es el objeto indirecto, "a present" es el objeto directo. ¿Cuál elegir como sujeto de la pasiva?

 En principio ambos son válidos pero el objeto indirecto es más utilizado.

1.- A present was given to us (Importante: Si se utiliza el objeto directo como sujeto de la pasiva, el indirecto debe ser introducido por la preposicion”to”)
2.- We were given a present (más corriente)



Pasiva impersonal. (Equivale a una pasiva con “se” en español)

Cuando el objeto de una oración activa es una acción introducida por un “that” (tendríamos una principal y una subordinada introducida por “that”; una oración compuesta con dos verbos) se pueden utilizar dos estructuras pasivas:



 Pasiva 1 (Introducida siempre por “it” seguido de verbo pasivo + la frase igual  a partir del “that):
 It is said that she is a good actress. (Se dice que ella es buena actriz)

Activa: People say that she is a good actress
Pasiva 2 (con infinitivo): She is said to be a good actress. (Se dice que ella es buena actriz)


Cuando el verbo de la oración subordinada (la que empieza por el “that”) está en presente o futuro, este pasa a formar la pasiva transformándose en un infinitivo simple.

Cuando el tiempo de la  subordinada es un tiempo pasado, este se transforma a pasiva en un infinitivo perfecto ( to have+ participio).

Ejemplos:
Activa: People say that she was a good actress

Pasiva 2: She is said to have been a good actress.

Si tras el “that” hay un presente continuo, se utiliza un infinitivo continuo (tobe + ING) en la pasiva
Ejemplos:
Activa:  They think that he is living in Paris.
Pasiva: He is thought to be living in Paris. (Se cree que el está viviendo en Paris).




EJERCICIOS
De activa a pasiva

1.       You should open the wine about three hours before you use it.
2.       Somebody had cleaned my shoes and brushed my suit.
3.       We use this room only on special occasions.
4.       They feed the seals at the zoo twice a day.
5.       Who wrote it?
6.       He expected us to offer him a job.
7.       They showed her the easiest way to do it.
8.       The author has written a special edition for children.
9.       The milkman brings the milk to my door but the postman leaves the letters in the hall.
10.    People steal things from supermarkets every day: someone stole 20 bottles last week.
11.    Someone left his purse in a classroom yesterday, the cleaner found it.
12.    Passengers leave all sorts of things in buses.
13.    The Court tried the man, found him guilty and sent him to prison.
14.    They invited Jack but they didn’t invite Tom.
15.    Has someone posted my packet?
16.    Why did no one inform me about the change of plan?
17.    Tom Smith wrote the book and Brown Co. published it.
18.    We bake the bread here                            
19.    We are baking the bread
20.    We have baked the bread                          
21.    We baked the bread yesterday
22.    We were baking the bread                                 
23.    We had baked the bread
24.    We will bake the bread                              
25.    We are going to bake the bread
26.    We should bake the bread soon                                
27.    We ought to bake the bread
28.    Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone
29.    The Queen will open the new hospital
30.    The wind blew away the paper
31.    Someone has destroyed all the documents
32.    Someone stole all our money and passports
33.    Somebody built this house in 1895.
34.    Has a dog ever bitten you?
35.    We can solve this problem.
36.    Somebody might have stolen your car if you had left the keys in it.
37.    An electrical fault could have caused the fire.
38.    They shouldn’t have played the football match in such bad weather.
39.    People in Chile speak Spanish.
40.    Has anybody asked Peter?
41.    Liverpool beat Manchester 3 – 0 yesterday.
42.    The Chinese invented paper.


De pasiva a active

1.  This ring was made by my mother.
2.  Nothing was sent to me.
3.  Papers were bought to us to sign.
4.  A clock was given to Henry when he retired.
5.  Stories were read to the children.
6.  A new job has been offered to me.
7.  Stamps are not sold in bookshops
8.  You will be told where to go
9.  Your application is still being considered.
10.         She has been arrested for shoplifting
11.         We will be driven to the airport.
12.         We were stopped in our way home by the police.
13.         Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
14.         Our car is being repaired now.